- HAGGAI (or Ḥagga; fl. c. 300 C.E.), Palestinian amora. Probably born in Babylon (TJ, Or 3:1, 63a; TJ, Av. Zar. 3:14, 43c), he went to Palestine, where after initial difficulties (Av. Zar. 68a) he became a prominent member of the academy of Tiberias and one of the principal pupils of zeira whom he often accompanied (TJ, Dem. 3:2, 23b) and in whose name he transmitted sayings (TJ, Kid. 3:2, 63d). In a dispute with Ḥanina in a case of marital law, Haggai was praised by R. Hilla as a scholar of sound judgment (ibid.). Because of his important position in the academy he opened each study session while yose and Jonah closed them (TJ, RH 2:6, 58b). Haggai was also the pupil (according to Frankel, Mevo ha-Yerushalmi, 79b–80b, the associate) of Yose (BB 19b; TJ, Pes. 4:3, 31a; TJ, Kid. 3:3, 64a; see TJ, Shab. 1:5, 4a, where Yose calls him "rabbi"; cf. TJ, RH 2:6, 58b). In a case brought before Aḥa he supported the view of his teacher Yose by an oath "By Moses," a formula often employed by him (TJ, Naz. 5:1, 54a; TJ, 4:3, 24a, etc.). Like Yose he held the view that the reason for the interdiction against looking at the kohanim while they are reciting the Priestly Benedictions is because it may distract them from proper concentration (TJ, Ta'an. 4:1, 67b). His close pupil and associate was mana , the head of the academy in Sepphoris, who participated in Haggai's scholarly discussions (ibid.). Once Mana visited his sick teacher on the Day of Atonement and gave him permission to drink, but Haggai declined to avail himself of it (TJ, Yoma 6:4, 43d). His daughter was involved in lawsuits because she squandered her property (TJ, BB 10:15, 17d). His son Eleazar was a pupil of Mana's academy in Sepphoris (TJ, Shek. 7:3, 50c). Haggai appears to have lived for a while in Tyre (TJ, Ket. 2:6, 4a) and some sources hint at the fact that he migrated to Babylonia in the days of abbaye and rabbah since he is quoted in the Babylonian Talmud as having had discussions with them (e.g., BM 113b but see dik . Sof. BM 169b, n. 100). The Haggai who ordered Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya to be punished by flagellation for falsely interpreting Scripture to the effect that fish must be slaughtered in the same way as animals and that the son of a gentile mother may be circumcised on the Sabbath is probably this Haggai and not haggai of Sepphoris. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bacher, Pal Amor, 3; Hyman, Toledot, S.V.; J.L. Maimon, Yiḥusei Tanna'im ve-Amora'im (1963), 229–30; Ḥ. Albeck, Mavo la-Talmudim (1969), 323–5. HAGGAI OF SEPPHORIS HAGGAI OF SEPPHORIS (third century C.E.), Palestinian amora. Born in Babylonia, one of the principle pupils of huna (the exilarch), he emigrated to Palestine where he joined the pupils of R. Johanan . There is considerable confusion between him and another amora of the same name (see preceding entry). In fact, most authorities, including the classical ones (Yiḥusei Tanna'im ve-Amora'im, S.V. Haggai), do not distinguish between the two. Even accepting that there were two distinct men called Haggai (and there were more, see albeck , Mavo la-Talmudim, 391), it remains difficult to determine which events recorded apply to the one and which to the other. Haggai transmitted halakhic rules in the names of Abba b. Avda, Abbahu, Isaac, Johanan b. Lakhish, Joshua b. Levi, Samuel b. Nahamani, etc. When the coffin of his teacher Huna (probably the exilarch mentioned above, see Tos. to MK 25a; and TJ, Kil. 9:4, 32b–c) was brought (in 297 C.E.) to Palestine to be placed in a cave (sepulcher) at the side of Ḥiyya 's remains, Haggai was chosen to place his teacher's coffin there, a special honor and privilege (MK 25a). According to another version (TJ, Ket. 12:3, 35a) he was at that time an old man of over 80 and people suspected that he wished to enter the cave only to die at that chosen spot. Thus he asked that a rope be attached to his feet so that he might be pulled out from the cave after the burial of Huna. In Genesis Rabbah (9:3) he quotes, in R. Isaac's name, an interpretation of I Chronicles 28:9 to teach that "even before thought is born in a man's heart, it is already revealed to God." Further (Gen. R. 60:2), based upon Genesis 24:12, he states that everybody needs God's grace, since even Abraham, in whose merit favor is granted to the whole world, was in need of divine grace for the success of the choice of a bride for Isaac. It is stated that when he appointed officials (parnasim) he handed them a Torah scroll to symbolize that authority comes only from the Law, as it is written, "By me kings reign… by me princes rule" (Prov. 8:15–16). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bacher, Pal Amor; Hyman, Toledot, S.V.; J.L. Maimon, Yiḥusei Tanna'im ve-Amora'im (1963), 229–30; Ḥ. Albeck, Mavo la-Talmudim (1969), 287.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.